Facial pigment is very common problem. The treatment will depend on the type of pigment, age of the patient and severity of the problem.
A combination of various modalities of treatment will be the best in order to achieve the optimal result for you. This may include laser treatment with a combination of cream and oral medications. The Nd yag laser is one of the most effective laser for treatment of facial pigment.
Skin pigmentations including freckles are caused by extra production and deposition of skin pigment or melanin by cells in the skin called melanocytes. Uneven depositions of the melanin will also results in uneven skin tone. The melanocytes provide natural skin protection against the sun rays and gives us the colour of our skin. While our skin tone is mainly genetic, the melanocytes will also be stimulated to produce extra pigments when exposed to sun, chemicals, hormones, trauma and congenital birth marks.
Skin crème will lighten the pigments by suppressing the production of melanin. Sunblock will also reduce the effect of the UV rays thereby reducing production of melanin. Various oral medications such as tranexamic acid will also suppress production. Vit C which is a common ingredient of skin crème in addition to its antioxidant effect which brightens the skin also reduce production of melanin. Vit C is also commonly used with glutathione as an infusion for skin brightening. However, suppression of production of melanin will take a very long time to correct the pigmentation.
The Nd yag laser works by shattering the melanin molecules by selective photothermolysis. The wavelength of the Nd yag lasers is selective absorbed by the pigments resulting in destruction of the pigments. The destroyed pigments will be removed by the body defense mechanisms. The laser will be more effective than just using the traditional methods of pigment crème. The laser treatment will also results in general tightening of the skin, lifting, reduction of pores as well as stimulation of skin collagen. The patient will not only have her skin pigment problem treated but end up with more beautiful complexion.
The settings on the laser machine will have to be adjusted to the type of pigments, skin and as well as the depth of the skin pigments. Fractional C02 lasers are occasionally used for patient whose pigments are mainly superficial. However, unlike the Nd yag laser which has no down time for patients, the fractional CO2 may cause some down time for recovery. The Nd yag laser is the main laser used for the treatment of skin pigmentation.